Here is the answer to A nitrogenous base is indicated by the letter _____.
A nitrogenous base is indicated by the letter _____.
- Below are the answer and explanations.
Base, in chemistry, is originally short for “basic group”. Most of the basic groups in organic matter contain nitrogen atoms, which are called nitrogenous bases, and amino group (-NH2) is the simplest nitrogenous base.
Bases, also known as nucleobases and nitrogenous bases in biochemistry, are nitrogenous compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides. Monomers such as bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides form the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
Nucleobases can form base pairs with each other and stack on top of each other, so they are important components of long-chain helix structures such as ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Bases are the basic building blocks for the synthesis of nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids and contain nitrogen, also known as “nitrogenous bases”.
There are five common bases in living organisms, namely adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U), and in 2019, four more bases were synthesized. “P” “S” “B” (as the name suggests, of the first five bases, adenine and guanine belong to the purine family (abbreviated as R), which have a bicyclic structure. Cytosine, uracil, and thymine belong to the pyrimidine group (Y), and their ring system is a six-membered heterocyclic ring. They are also referred to as major or standard bases.
They are the basic units that make up the genetic code, where bases A, G, C, and T are found in DNA, while A, G, C, and U are found in RNA. It is worth noting that thymine has one more methyl group at the 5-position than uracil, and this methyl group increases the genetic accuracy. A compound formed when a base is covalently bonded to the 1-position carbon atom of ribose or deoxyribose is called a nucleoside. (The nucleoside then combines with a phosphate to form a nucleotide, with the phosphate group attached to the 5th carbon atom of the five-carbon sugar).
Methylcytosine (mC): derived from C, is the main cause of epigenetic mechanism. As an important epigenetic modification, mC is involved in the regulation of gene expression, X-chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting, long-term silencing of transposons, and cancer development.
Methyl adenine (mA), whose main role is to determine the nature of the epigenome and therefore plays an important role in the life processes of cells. Algae and worms as well as flies possess mA. The main function of mA is to regulate the expression of certain genes and, therefore, constitutes a new epigenetic marker.
Other newly discovered bases are 5-cytosine methyl, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-cytosine formyl, and 5-cytosine carboxyl.
A total of 21 base species have been identified as of 2020.
Here is the correct answer to A nitrogenous base is indicated by the letter _____.
A nitrogenous base is indicated by the letter C.
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